2020考研英语:精华词汇详细辨析(三)

考研英语 来源:网络 2018-11-08 
 

21、alleviate, diminish, reduce, decrease, decline

这一组动词都有"减少,减轻"的意思。

alleviate v.在痛苦方面的减轻,缓和

The painkiller alleviated the pain.止疼药减缓了疼痛。

diminish v.指因为不断消耗,在数量方面缓慢减少,也指在素质或者价值的下降。

The supply of oil has diminished because of the war.由于战争石油的供应减少了。

reduce v.指人为地使某物在数量或重量方面的减少或降低。

He reduced the amount of money they could spend.他缩减了他们的开销。

decrease v.指数量上的减少;力量或者强度的减弱。

The population decreased a lot last year.去年人口数量急剧下降。

decline v. (数目、价格、比率)下降;谢绝,婉言推辞;衰退,衰落。

Last year, the crime rate in Chicago has sharply declined.去年芝加哥的犯罪率明显下降。

He declined our invitation to dinner.他婉拒了我们请他吃饭的邀请。

22、allocate, separate, detach, divide

都有"分开"的意思。

allocate v.分配,把……拨给。

The city government allocated money for schools and the police in this year's budget.市政府在今年的预算中给学校和警察部门分配了资金。

separate v.人为地分开,使隔离开。

We separated the salad forks from the dinner forks.我们把沙拉叉与餐叉分隔开。

detach v.拆开组合的物体;远离,疏远。

We need a carpenter to detach this bookshelf from the wall.我们需要一名木匠将书架从墙上拆下来。

divide v.指将整体分为若干个部分。

The huge corporation divided into smaller companies.这家特大公司分成一些较小的公司。

23、ambiguous, obscure, vague, unclear, dim "模糊"

ambiguous a.意义含糊的,有歧义的,指因字、词、句有歧义而使人感到模糊不清、难以理解和把握。

His ambiguous directions confused us; we did not know which of the two roads to take.他的模棱两可的指导使我们很迷惑以至于我们不知道该走哪条路了。

obscure a.用于表达因光线不足而使人看不清楚。该词的引申意义可以表示语法、文字、记忆等因复杂、深奥、模棱两可而使人看不懂和无法理解。

The poetry of Ezra Pound is sometimes difficult to understand because it contains so many obscure references.艾兹拉·庞德的诗有时候难以理解,因为诗歌中含有许多令人费解的典故。

vague a.含混的,不清楚的,多用于比喻意义,用来表示因逻辑关系不清、言辞笼统而导致的意义不清楚,该词也可表示轮廓形状的不清楚和模糊。

He has some vague ideas about what to do, but nothing specific.他大概知道他要做什么,但没有具体的计划。

unclear a.指句意、字迹不清楚,使人难以看懂;不肯定的。

Unclear writing is difficult to understand.模糊的字迹使人难以辨认。

It is unclear whether the economy will get better.经济是否好转仍不明朗。

dim a.光线暗淡的,看不清的;记忆力模糊的;不大可能的。

Don't work in dim light.不要在昏暗的光线下工作。

His changes of recovery from illness are dim.他康复的可能性十分渺茫。

24、amplify, enlarge, stretch, magnify, reinforce, expand

amplify v.扩大,增加,尤其指通过增强电压或电流使声音扩大;补充叙述(故事、事件等)。

We must ask you to amplify your statement.我们得请你对你的说法作进一步的说明。

enlarge v.扩大,多指具体物品如相片的放大。

enlarge photograph放大照片enlarge a house扩建房屋

stretch v. (有弹性地)伸展,延伸,并有可能超过限度;伸长、伸出(身体某部位)并绷紧肌肉(尤指在放松后或为了够着某物)。

The pullover stretched after I had worn it a few times.这件套头毛衣我穿了几次之后就撑大了。

Having finished their morning work, the clerks stood up behind their desks, stretching themselves.完成了早间工作之后,职员们站到桌子后面伸伸懒腰。

magnify v.放大,指用透镜或显微镜使物体看上去大一些。

His eyeglasses magnify words so he can read them.他借助眼睛把字放大以便能够阅读。

reinforce v.增援,加固。

expand v.指范围、体积的扩大、增大,也可以指内容细节的充实。

The balloon expanded, then exploded.气球先是膨胀,然后就爆破了。

25、anger, fury, indignation, resentment"愤怒、生气"

anger n.气愤,生气,是一般用语。

After their argument, he expressed his anger by punching the other man in the face.争吵之后,他一拳打在那个人的脸上以发泄怒气。

fury n.暴怒,大怒,程度较anger要强。

indignation n.义愤,尤其指出于道义上的激愤。

general indignation at the sudden steep rise in bus fares公共汽车票价突然猛增激起的公愤

resentment n.愤恨,怨恨,不满,是正式用语,尤指由于受侮辱或自尊心受到伤害后而产生的愤慨。

There was a feeling of resentment in the office after everyone's pay was lowered.大家的工资降低后,办公室里怨声载道。

26、apparent, evident, manifest, obvious, distinct

这一组形容词都有"明显的"之意。

apparent a.明显的,显而易见的,尤指容易观察或认识到的事物。

He is very unhappy, and it is apparent that he wants to leave now.他很不高兴,显然他现在想走了。

evident a.明白的,明显的,与apparent基本同意,多用于推理或由事实证明的事物。

It is evident that he is guilty; his fingerprints were found at the crime scene.显然他是有罪的,在犯罪现场发现了他的指纹。

manifest a.清楚的,明显的,多指根据外部特征或迹象便能看出或了解其意义,常作表语。

Her ability is manifest, but she is not attractive.她才能出众,但长相并不动人。

obvious a.明显的,显而易见的,含有无可辩白,不需证明之意。

It is obvious that that woman has had too much to drink.很显然,那个妇女酒喝的太多了。

distinct a.清楚的,明显的;不同的,独特的。修饰性质明显不同的东西。

Medical care has made a distinct improvement in his health.治疗已使他的健康有了明显的好转。

27、applaud, clap, commend, praise

applaud v.鼓掌,赞扬,指因精湛表演或某种行为得到别人的赞许,大声叫好或热烈鼓掌。

The boss applauded my efforts by praising my work.老板表扬了我的工作,对我的努力表示赞许。

clap v.拍打,其用法是clap one's hand=applaud,不能说applaud one's hands。clap sb.为某人鼓掌,clap sth.拍打某物

commend v.为正式用词,用于对具体功绩或成就表示嘉奖,通常指上级对下级、长辈对晚辈的赞赏。

The teacher commended the student for doing well on the exam.老师表扬学生们的考试成绩优异。

praise v.为一般用词,用于对某人的优秀品质表示钦佩羡慕;赞颂,赞美。

A supervisor praised the employee for her good work.一位主管称赞这位员工的工作做得不错。

Survivors of the crash praised God for saving them.坠机事件的幸存者赞颂上帝使他们得救。

28、area, district, region, vicinity, zone有"区域"的意思。

area n.泛指面积较大的地区;面积;专业领域。

The New York area has high rents.纽约地区房租很高。

district n.行政区划的小范围地区。如Xicheng district西城区

region n.行政区划上更大的地区,如"自治区";身体部位。

The northeast region of the USA includes New York and the six New England states.美国东北部包括纽约和新英格兰地区的那六个州。

vicinity n.周围地区,附近地区。

The police were alerted that the escaped criminal might be in the vicinity.警察都十分警惕因为逃跑的罪犯就藏在附近地区。

zone n.指特定的地方、地带。

The city passed a law to create a business zone on some empty land.市政府通过法律,在一些空地上开辟商业区。

29、assembly, conference, congress, rally, seminar, session, summit, symposium都表示"会议"的意思。

assembly n.集合,集会。

The assembly of students takes place in the auditorium.学生们在大礼堂举行集会。

conference n. (专门性的)会议,讨论会。

The conference on international economic problems met in Geneva.关于世界经济问题的会议在日内瓦召开。

congress n.代表大会,(美国的)国会。

Congress passes laws that must be obeyed by the people.美国国会通过的法律,人民一定要遵守。

rally n. (鼓舞士气的)集会;群众性集会。

The football coach called a rally to build up the team's excitement for the next game.足球教练召开了一个动员会,以便鼓舞士气打好下次比赛。

seminar n. (大学的)研究班,研讨会。

During summer vacations some teachers attend seminars at college.暑假里,一些教师在学院里参加研究班。

session n. (一届)会议,回合。

the autumn session of Parliament议会的秋季会议

summit n.最高级会议,峰会(通常为领导人参加)。

Next year, the summit will be held in Vienna.明年将在维也纳举行最高级会谈。

symposium n. (学术、科研方面的)座谈会,专题报告会。

The symposium on SARS research lasted two days.非典型性肺炎研究的研讨会持续了两天。

30、assessment, estimate, evaluation有"评估"的意思。

assessment n.评估,估价,常常表示对于财产、价值的评估。

We have a low assessment on our property.我们对我们的资产评估很低。

estimate n.估计,强调进行评估得出的结果,常与give搭配。

The mechanic gave me a rough estimate of two or three hundred dollars for the repairs to my car.机械师给我的汽车修理费的粗略估计是200或300美元。

evaluation n. (对于能力,价值、工作业绩的)评价,估价,常带有肯定的、正确的含义。

He gave a positive evaluation of our scientific research.他对于我们的科学研究给予了积极的评价。

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